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Interview : Sergio Valenzuela Escobedo_English edition

To measure myths with astrolabe.

An astrolabe, an exotic plant, a telescope, sacred masts, the shipwreck of a camera, necklaces, scientists observing Venus in front of the Sun, a photographer under a veil, a people from "the edge of the world"

_Please tell us how you got started in photography and why you decided to write your doctoral thesis on the history of the camera itself.

Sergio Valenzuela Escobedo(SVE):

I got started in photography like most people of my generation, and it all began unexpectedly during a family event. My father gave me his Nikkormat camera, and that's when I started using it. Initially, like any young dreamer, I took countless pictures of clouds. But then, I became intrigued by the concept of capturing the decisive moment as they called in France, which is often discussed in photography, even though I initially aspired to be a painter.

At that time, I didn't see photography as a means of expressing my artistic questions, as the camera seemed to do everything for me. I was also pursuing painting, but my perception of photography changed when I came across an exhibition catalog called "The Last Picture Show" exhibition's catalog organized by Douglas Fogle. One photograph by Man Ray, depicting Duchamp's Large Glass, had a profound impact on me. It eventually inspired me to write my master's memoir years later, which led me to pursue art at the Villa Arson school in France.

It was during a conversation with the chilean artist Eugenio Dittborn in his studio in Santa Rita when I realized that I could leave graphic design behind and start a new life. He said: You dont have nothing to do here. Following a residency in a school in the south of France, I ended up many years laters later writing my doctoral thesis. The French National School of Photography (ENSP,Arles) provided a one-year program where I honed my photographic grammar as an international student and developed a significant connection with Araud Claass, who played a crucial role in my first Arlesian photographic journey.

However, I became somewhat disenchanted with the images taught at the Arles school, and I sought a more experimental and challenging environment. I found that at the art school in Nice, where I learned the true purpose and use of using a "Japanese device with American film" writes in Fallo Fotografico, (1981) as Dittborn writes it. This understanding shaped my conceptual practice, using images from a mechanical camera that originated during the industrial revolution. This aspect of photography would later become the focus of my doctoral thesis, but even before that, I had a strong fascination with the tool that allowed me to create negative images on transparent plastic or understand the cosmic effects of sunlight on the silver halides of the film, as the german-chilean poet Ronald Kay used to say. The poetic theories of photography by present in "Del espacio de acá: señales para una mirada americana " greatly enriched my artistic practice.


At a certain point, I decided to shift my focus from actively creating photographic images to conducting research. This transition occurred naturally when I returned to Arles to pursue my practice-based PhD, taking place between the school (ENSP, Arles) and the University of Aix-Marseille.

During this period, I realized my preference for working with image montages rather than taking photographs myself. As a result, I theorized my research on the photographic apparatus and how the artist's role shifted to that of a researcher with images. Along the way, I had to sacrifice my position in this narrative, but this became the starting point for my artistic research.

Coming from the South and now being in the North, I began to ponder the first boat trips to South America by photographers who brought cameras with them. Through archival research, I discovered photographers, some of whom were scientists or priests, both referred to as "operators." These operators documented various phenomena, such as Venus passing in front of the Sun or celestial events, which were observed by native Kawéskar, Yámanas, Selk'nam and Aónikenk. The operators observed these events while remaining under a veil for several seconds, and this intrigued the native people. I came across an expression, "Toumayacha Alakana," which means: "Looking with your head covered by a veil" or the act of taking a photograph. It is believed that Dr. Hyades documented this expression during the 1882 Mission Scientifique du Cap Horn.

What natives thought at the moment of the first encounter with the camera will always remaind a mystery. Unearthing words and phrases describing these comunities perceptions of the photographic act through the writings of european explorers was therefore a way of bringing into existence a language that remains, even today, in the shadows and little known. My methodological approach involved creating a triangle, avoiding the clichés of image-making and instead allowing the camera and myself to be the subjects of study. For five years, I searched through archives to find the earliest photographs, along with the notebooks and transcriptions made by Europeans.

There is a colonial myth that the indigenous people of South America feared having their souls taken. Saying that the indigenous people don't want to be photographed (in particular because "the photographer isgoing to steal their souls") is also a way of emphasising that they are "savages", while at the same time giving value to the photos that are brought back - in fact, the question of refusal to be photographed is complex and varied: resistance can relate to the taking of the photo, to the circulation of the image, to the one-sided nature of the transaction, just to name few. In a methophoric way, the shift in my gaze was realized by turning the camera around, focusing on responsable and understanding the colonial gaze. That is how I focus my point of view into one of the history of photography. I called my thesis: MÄNK'ÁČEN: Photographic mechanics, mysticism and superstition among the native peoples of South America. Whos first state as a exhibition, dissertation and thesis in the gallery of the ENSP Arles in 2021(

_Now, it is striking that you are so self-referential in your choice of career and subject matter. I suppose it comes from your own birthplace/roots, and from your attention to the "responsible" of those who make photographs, symbolised by the "native gaze". Now, I would like to ask you a little more about what you understand by "responsibility".


The self-referential does not have to do here with a special relation to my person, but has to do with a question of Latin American identity. An identity that has been interrupted, an hybrid identity that is the result of Spanish colonization that wiped out the culture and knowledge that existed on the continent. The question of identity is something that is worked on a lot in Latin American art.

As artist and researchers, it is important under my eyes to understand our position before we talk about a subject. We all carry some history, “the images are constantly shaped by personal memory as well as the apparatus of viewing”wrote Tanvi Mishra in her last exhibition. This is why I became interested in the South American native gaze, as you point out. But this resulted at the same time my first methodological error in the frame of my doctoral project.

Since I had not clearly identified who my ancestors are, I could not usurp a vision that is not mine. And in this sense, it is very important to understand that, although we Chileans might some native blood, we cannot speak in the name of others. We haven’t lived under the same racism, the same unprivileged, the same erasure of culture. This certainly does not oblige us to focus only on ourselves, but to understand that the working methodologies must be invented in relation to each moment, to each investigation, to each gaze. In that sense, I completely disagree with the segregation idea that only whites photograph whites, or blacks photograph blacks, or the ticking boxes culture that is in such a fashion today specially in institutions. It is much more complex than that, this is about a power structure that has nothing to do with skin color but with privilege.

In this sense, the idea of "responsibility" has to do with the culprits. Documentary photography has historically been very interesting to the victims. From my point of view, the responsibility we have today has to do first, with a global discussion and that is the problem of political art and its real political effectiveness: from the poems of Tzara to the works of Alfredo Jaar, including the reports of Larry Burrows. It is by no means a question of seeking to shine under the pretext of the injustice of the world, but to understand how to raise the pressure of what we believe needs to be said. In the meantime, our responsibility as artists is to share our experience in order to make people aware. Art cannot change the world, it is the concerned citizen that could.

Documentary perspectivism

_ In this connection, is it correct to understand that the "triangle" as a methodological approach incorporates a third term that leaves the one-to-one correspondence (=cliche)?


In the methodology (which by the way is not a formula) proposed within the framework of my doctoral tesis in order to situate myself correctly as a photographer in the field in relation to this 'reversal of the gaze', I paradoxically decided not to use my camera, and thus be certain not to reproduce the schematic photographer/subject relationship. In the middle, the black box of the camera creates a distance between the two. This creates an experimental triangular relationship between the photographer, the native photographed and what I will call the witness (the photographer without the camera, myself), with the camera/black box always in the centre. Jump in to the line. To identify the position of the artist-researcher in relation to that of the witness-photographer without the camera, it is necessary to remember that the first European photographers unfortunately did not see the native as half-human, half-animal beings with a multifocal perception of the world.For example, during ceremonies, the shaman undergoes an animal transformation and then perceives different points of view on the world, such as that of the jaguar, enemy or divinity. As for the artist-researcher/witness, what points of view can he or she adopt in order to study the black box of the native point of view, which is essentially monofocal rather than multifocal?

With regard to the plurality of points of view in native cultures, it should be remembered that the ancient geoglyphs of the Nazca desert can only be perceived in a multifocal way. The stone lines form geometric figures only when seen from the top of a mountain or from the sky; but seen from the ground, they are no more than lines that can be confused with the ruins of a railway or an ancient road, stripped of their magic and their grandiose character. This is where my interests lie on the Duchamp picture.

With this multifocal idea in mind and knowing that expressions and a vocabulary were born at the time of the first contacts between native peoples and cameras, I set off in search of images and writings produced by anthropologists, travellers, explorers, artists, and photographers. In the nineteenth century, the images were often the result of collaboration between photographers, draughtsmen and lithographers, intended for publication in a newspaper or magazine; they are therefore sometimes indirect documents, as the initial photographs were often lost.

There is not much written material on photographic act compared to the many photographic bodies preserved in European and North American institutions. Often, they are mere finds, in the form of a short paragraph in an enormous scientific report, or sentences in an autobiography. Most of the observers were scientist, artists, priests, doctors, ethnologists or sailors, and were often commissioned by the governments in power. This is where the colonization gaze can be studied, this is the moment where the responsible invented the idea of the savage for example. From the first voyages of explorers in the 16th century to colonial expansion in the 19th century, the body of the "Other" fascinated Europeans as much as it worried them. So I was intrigued by the way in which the figure of the 'savage' was invented, constructed and shaped by the camera. Don't forget that the camera arrived at the same time as the train - they're contemporaries. Maybe some could argue that one conquered the territory and the other the soul.

_And it reminded us of the problems we have after 3.11 (the Great East Japan Earthquake).People were saying, "I can't say I'm a disaster victim because there are people who have suffered more severe damage than me," creating divisions within the country. I understood that check boxes were created depending on whether or not there was a disaster and how large or small it was. I was very impressed by the answer, "the working methodologies must be invented " each time.Also, because of my late reply, the interview period is running out, so let me ask you three longer questions.In response to the previous question, you also gave a clear answer about the inevitability of crossing fields. If I were to make a somewhat forcible connection, for example, since the authors and discoverers of materials related to cameras are various and the format is not fixed, the work of investigating them must be invented each time. And it's even shamanic. This point reminds me of the writings of Viveiros de Castro. Does this mean that there is already something in the mechanism of the camera itself that compels it to behave as a shaman?


Since it has been an unforeseen journey that has allowed me, among other things, to build exhibitions and books that exposes all my nostalgia for the mythical and the sacred. I think to start my answer to your question I need to insist in the sacred, this is because I personally remain attached to ancient values. I share ideas with Pasolini when he writes: “This values are victims of artificial acceleration and unjustified oblivion”. But when you said “it’s even shamanic”, that sentence involves all the clichés we have on what shamanic means, so it is very important to talk about it. In my conception, standing as an artistic researcher who was working in writing a thesis, the “shamanic” behavior is not related to healing but has to do with the power of been different person at once. This understanding helps me to I got to invent the concept of “documentary perspectivism” is an approach that recognises subjectivity and the multiplicity of perspectives in the creation and interpretation of visual documents, particularly in the field of photographic investigation. This notion derives from the thinking of the Brazilian anthropologist Vivieros de Castro. It questions the idea of a single, objective truth by placing the focus on the diversity of experiences, viewpoints and voices in the representation of reality. Documentary perspectivism is based on the assumption that each visual element is shaped by its creator’s choices, as well as by the interactions between the subject, the photographer and the viewer. It demonstrates that reality cannot be recorded exhaustively and objectively but is always filtered through subjective and cultural prisms. This approach invites us to think of visual documents as social and discursive constructions that reflect the power relations, ideologies and values present in society. And it emphasises the importance of challenging dominant narratives which most of the time are monoperspective, encourages a plural, transparent and ethical mode of representation of reality based on a multiplicity of voices and points of view. In this sense, it is important that the photographer-turned-researcher adopts a reflexive and critical approach throughout the process, which must include reflection on the role played by the photographer in the investigation, the construction of the visual narrative, and the ethical stance taken in relation to the subjects covered.

_ I would like to know specific methods for research and book editing. "Triangle" is a very interesting methodology. If that means being virtually present at a point where both time and space are different, what kind of thoughts and attitudes were necessary to get closer to the object that was originally distant, and to bind it? The bellows binding is very impressive, but did you actually line up (edit) the photographs in a long pages?


The "Triangle Method" is not a rigid approach for research and book editing. Instead, it serves as a methodology designed to assist me : a privileged Chilean artistic researcher living as a foreigner in Europe. More specifically in his particular research work linked to the decolonisation of the French photographic archives. It is important to note that the “Triangle Method” is not a formula; rather, it offers a unique framework for this particular research context. To answer your question regarding the organization of the archives, someone must concentrate on the details present in the researcher's titles. The Ph.D. thesis is described as being the"first state," indicating an early stage of the research journey with preliminary insights. In contrast, the subsequent published by Palais Book designed by Yann Linsart represents the more advanced "third state," signifying a different way to use and understanding of the archives.

Integration of theory and experience

In the initial phase of my research (first state), I focused on the concept of visual essays within the realm of artistic research in photography. During this exploration, I came to realize that the methods employed in artistic research in photography, such as photographic investigations, are diverse and contingent upon the specific objectives and context of the research. Examples of common methods used by photographers engaged in research include documentary research, participatory observation, interviews, evidence collection, and documentary photography, among others. As a curator in the field of photographic research, I find it pertinent to investigate the similarities and differences between the methods used in research-creation and research-observation, aiming to discern potential overlaps. This analytical approach can lead to a deeper comprehension of artistic presentations, their political contexts, and the role of the photographer-researcher. Depending on the investigative context and desired objectives, it may be necessary to combine and adapt these methods accordingly. In this context, it is relevant to acknowledge the concept of montage in the works of filmmakers, ethnologists, and artists who have integrated these disciplines to explore and document diverse cultures and societies. Renowned figures such as Jean Rouch, have made significant contributions to the practice of film. Their work has challenged conventional research approaches and introduced innovative ways to portray and understand human societies through film, albeit with a continuous need to question the relationship between the viewer and the subject.

Jean Rouch's pioneering cinéma-vérité approach has been highly successful in challenging the conventional boundaries of cinema. It has brought filmmaking closer to reality by providing a more genuine and authentic perspective on the individuals and communities captured on film. This groundbreaking method has had a profound impact on the field of ethnographic cinema, introducing novel ways to portray and understand cultures and societies through the powerful medium of visual essays. One of the key strengths of cinéma-vérité lies in its ability to create multi-dimensional representations of its subjects. By skillfully incorporating elements like sound, graphics, archival documents, and images into their films, these filmmakers have enriched the narratives and offered viewers diverse perspectives on the subject matter. These multi-layered representations have decisively influenced the course of my subsequent investigations, encouraging a more nuanced and comprehensive understanding of the depicted cultures and societies.Comparable to research-creation, cinéma-vérité shares a common objective of not merely confirming or refuting established hypotheses. Instead, both approaches embrace dynamic and ever-evolving paths of exploration. At their core, visual essays in research-creation entail a unique mode of expression through images, surpassing the constraints of traditional academic discourse. This distinctive approach enables a more fluid and dynamic engagement with the subject matter, facilitating continuous evolution and fostering innovative interpretations. By leveraging the power of images, these methods offer dialectic approach means of understanding and representing complex phenomena, transcending conventional research methodologies.

In "Mänk'áčen" (thirs state) , the lineup of the photographic archive takes the form of a continuous, long page, known as a leporello. Each pages of the leporello directly corresponds to the tables in my exhibition of my Ph.D.(October 18th, 2021, at the ENSP Arles). The book features a 5-meter-long paper that brings together over a hundred images sourced from my research and Western ethnographic archives. This unique presentation offers an unprecedented exploration of the spiritual and political implications resulting from the introduction of the camera in South America during the 19th century. The leporello serves multiple purposes; it functions as both a book and an exhibition, blurring the lines between these formats. Simultaneously, it assumes the role of a diagram as a work of art, embodying an art book that serves as a testament to my doctoral journey. The leporello and the exhibition are inseparable, with the former being the outcome of the latter. This cohesive approach underscores the interconnectedness of my research and its visual representation.

My research challenges traditional distinctions between the roles of a curator and an artist, as well as the boundaries between research and creative endeavors. It also bridges the gap between theoretical and artistic practices. The exhibition and the initial thesis (first state) intertwine various lines of inquiry, employing an experimental and interdisciplinary approach. Drawing from an ethnographic collection, they propose the existence of a concept termed the "mystical mechanic." This innovative blend of research and exhibition ultimately defines my position as an artist-researcher. It epitomizes the integration of research findings into an exhibition format, showcasing the synergistic relationship between my roles as a researcher and an artist. This unique diagram of research as an exhibition serves as a pivotal aspect of my artistic identity, contributing to the dynamic fusion of research, creativity, and visual representation. It is therefore the diagram of the research as an exhibition , which determines my position as artist-researcher.

The diagram you currently possess, located at the back of the book behind Justo Pastor Mellado's text (a jury member), and also translated in the exhibition, is not merely a presentation of my own research results. Rather, it is a representation of the intricate relationship between various elements within the research itself. The nature of my results emerges from an ongoing interplay between practical experiences and theoretical exploration. Sometimes, the results stem from conducting experiments, while at other times, they arise from theoretical readings, and occasionally, it is a combination of both. The essence of my artistic research lies in the consequences of these dynamic interactions between theory and experience. My personal stance in this work revolves around the notion that my thesis does not solely produce individual art pieces but rather fosters interactions between the obtained results. This approach emphasizes the interconnectedness of different research outcomes, highlighting how they enrich and inform one another. The diagram you have encountered visually articulates these complex relationships, illuminating the dynamic process that shapes the conclusions and findings throughout the research journey. The synthesis of theory and experience in this manner contributes to the distinct character of my work, paving the way for a comprehensive and cohesive exploration of the subject matter. The thin lines on the back of the book refers to the connection between the lineup of the photographic archive in the third state of Mänk'áčen and the diagram of the research. In this way, the lineup of the photographic archive is intimately tied to the conceptual framework and process outlined in the research diagram, providing a comprehensive and cohesive representation of the researcher's work and findings. So the exhibition and the book (third state) commence with a significant historical moment, symbolizing a genuine return to antiquity. This journey begins at Nimrud (Kalhu) in northern Iraq, where a rock crystal oval disc was looted between 1845 and 1851. Contemporary physicists believe this object was intended for use as a lens. From the outset, the quest for understanding the world with a place for the sacred prompted travels and exploration across the Orient in search of alternative conceptions. This journey, bridging the East and West, signifies the emblematic force of the myth that represents the transition and consequences of a shift from an archaic civilization to one characterized by rational logos.

Unmask myths

_Looking at "Mänk'áčen", I noticed that there is something humorous in the extensive research that requires academic rigor. One of them, I thought, might be related to the "association of shapes" that can be called "graphical analogies" that sometimes appear. For example, I linked the pyramid and the prism of a camera, and the celestial body and the circle of the lens. I thought that this is because your production attitude is closer to trying to "rewrite myths" rather than "drawing the official history". What do you think?


The use of "graphical analogies" in my artistic research represents a poetic and evocative approach to my work. Through the exploration of archives, I sought to capture the moment when we look at cameras. This led me to delve into the representation of cameras in advertising, where I became interested in studying camera advertisements by concealing their slogans. While some artists, like Christopher Williams, have employed similar strategies, my focus lies on exposing the image without the accompanying commercial intent expressed through text. In this exercice, I emphasize the significance of the text/image relationship in advertising. By removing the slogans, I create space for a new voice to emerge, and the image can regain its expressive and even magical power, free from its monosemic, promotional nature. In certain advertisements with erased texts, one can perceive the camera receiving a fine ray of light through an opening, or a camera appearing with a bandage, or the revelation of the use of an infinity symbol or the pyramid shape of a camera. These alterations also allow for a different gaze, potentially changing the viewer's perspective in relation to the image. One of my advertisements without text was re insert in the ideological French circuit by the publication in 2019 in the photographic magazine "Inframince," published by the ENSP which is known for its thoughtful exploration of images and image-related concepts since 2005. This focus on camera images subsequently inspired me to create a collection of images, books, magazines, manuals, encyclopedias, and photography books for amateurs.

Regarding my theoretical approach, my reference point when looking inside the cameras comes from Jean Dibbets. Through his exhibition "Pandora's Box," he introduced me to the ideas of Vilém Flusser, a Czech-Brazilian theorist known for his work "Pour une philosophie de la photographie" (Towards a Philosophy of Photography). Flusser's insights, initially written in German in 1983, then in Portuguese in 1985, and finally translated into French twelve years later, greatly influenced this new understanding of photography. This encounter with Flusser's work marked the beginning of my fascination with what I refer to as the "theoreticians of the South." It led me to ponder whether it is possible to write a thesis on photography without referencing well-known theorists like Walter Benjamin, Siegfried Kracauer or Rosalind Krauss. While I deeply admire these theorists, their ideas may not resonate with me in the same way as those of Ronald Kay, Nelly Richard, Ticio Escobar, Silvia Ribera-Cusicanqui, or Eugenio Dittborn, to name a few. These artists, poet and theorists are more closely linked to the specific context of photography in South America, and their perspectives hold particular significance for my research. For an artist who has chosen to undertake research, it is crucial for to understand the standpoint and origins, recognizing that photography alone may not suffice in comprehending the complex issues I wish to explore.

By embracing a diverse range of perspectives and incorporating multiple theoretical approaches, engaging in collaborative work, and creating exhibitions, my artistic inquiry has been enriched, leading to the unveiling of nuanced insights that deeply resonate with the specific context and culture in which I am immersed. This approach has enabled me to reevaluate the conventional Western relationships among the artist, research outcomes, and the viewer. This approach allows me to “unmask myths” rather than “rewrite”.

When examining the concept you mention of "official history," it is crucial to acknowledge that history is not a singular, uniform narrative but rather a compilation of diverse accounts. The European collections portraying ancestral America serve as witnesses to the social and political context of their time, providing insights into the colonial dynamics between the newcomers and the native communities. As a result of this historical interaction, the native communities have experienced profound losses, including their culture, economic autonomy, and territorial rights. However, these collections offer much more than a mere exploration of the technical aspects of photography. They also offer a glimpse into the native people's approach to technology, knowledge, and superstitions, which have profoundly shaped their culture. My research has allowed me to gain a deeper understanding of these various historical narratives, as reflected in the photography of the Americas. It has exposed the intricate cultural and social dynamics prevalent in the region. Through my extensive research, I have come to realize that there is no singular "history" of photography. Instead, photography should reflect a complex interplay of intricate cultural and social dynamics. These new perspectives and narratives have shaped my practice of curating photography in unique and profound ways. I hope that my research will contribute to a transformative shift in focus and perspective on the History of photography in the Americas.

_On top of that, I think that the very impressive sentence "revealing the myth" can be rephrased, in Mishra's words, to deconstruct the "imaginary utopia." I have a question regarding this. If the totality of the first state “thesis”, the second “exhibition” and the third “book” are important in obtaining the perspective of perspectivism, then for the audience, such as viewers and readers, Is the generative change that occurs to them expected? Or is it excessive to step into others from such a point of view, and is your own discontinuity at issue here? I wanted to know more about the differences between these three states. Although everything overlaps and complements each other, could you explain a little more about where you see the decisive difference between them?


Let's attempt to answer this question in chronological order. First, I engaged in an artistic research project through a PhD program at the National School of Photography in France (Ensp), focusing on a photographic perspective. This journey led me to delve into European archives for five years while concurrently writing my thesis. Simultaneously, I had to curate an exhibition as part of the program's requirements.

Upon completing the exhibition, Yann Linsart, the founder of Palais Book editions, approached me and inquired about the availability of a catalog for the show. When I replied in the negative, he suggested we create one. This idea evolved into more than just a catalogue. Given the vast array of archival materials gathered from French archives, museums, magazines, anthropological files,my own results and more, its complexity became intriguing. I made the deliberate choice not to display any artworks in the exhibition, which is why the horizontal format was chosen. This exhibition design was realized with the assistance of Fanny Pellegrin, the exhibition's designer, who direct the Arles Teruhiro Yanagihara studio.

When we began working on the book with Yann, I granted the designer complete creative freedom. My vision was to craft an artistic rendition of a traditional academic PhD thesis. Simultaneously, I aimed to translate the defense into a book format, experimenting with the structure and model of a practice-based PhD. This is why you'll find text authored by a member of the jury within the book. I like to describe the object published by Palais Book as PhD thesis as a artist's book.

Subsequently, the exhibition traveled to Noua in Norway, where I made the decision to include artwork from contemporary artists like Tayo Onorato, Niko Krebs, Dafna Talmor, Sylvain Couzinet-Jacques, Catalina de la Cruz and who engaged in dialectical discussions with the archival material, thus bringing forth different ideas I had explored. In a way, the PhD thesis transformed into an infinite toolbox for my work as a curator.

Now, it may be time to revisit and rewrite it for publication in English or Spanish, representing its fourth iteration. Fortunately, it will continue to evolve. I am eager to continue this journey of itinerancy and experimentation, transitioning from a PhD to the art world. While art-based research is now a presence in biennials, I believe there are still new and innovative ways of presenting it. Although the contents of this exhibition may seem unrelated, such presentations often rely on explanatory texts to manage the vast array of displayed materials. The exhibition embodied a process of research-based art, characterized by an additive rather than condensed structure, reflecting the philosophy of "more is more." This example raises questions about the relationship between curatorial practice and artistic research.

_Lastly, I would be very happy if you could leave a message for Japanese readers and those who aspire to photography.


In my capacity as artist-researches that work as a curator, I consistently advocate for a generous approach. I've observed that with the advent of new technologies, photographers have assumed the role of editors. They no longer view the world through the lens in the same way as traditional photographers did, as they are no longer constrained by film limitations regarding the number of images they can capture. However, I believe that they often struggle as editors. I frequently find their contact sheets more compelling and fruitful for discussion than the final selection of images they ultimately choose.

We cannot forget that techniques appear to be in a constant state of depletion, akin to the fading myths of objectivity, transparency, and the illusory notion of their absolute truth. Beyond the realm of photography, research protocols and methodologies are in a perpetual state of evolution. Contrary to the conventional belief that photographic documentation is a naturalistic pursuit tethered to reality, photographer-researchers are less focused on capturing a singular perspective of the world and more intent on conveying multiple viewpoints. This can lead to the build a team. It not possible to work alone. What I mean is that a project need more than a photographer, but a graphic designer, a researcher, poets, who ever need to be there should be there. Especially if he o she doesnt agree some ideas. Here is where creative critical thi